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Segment 1: Infrastructure of manipulation experiments

The manipulation experiment infrastructure includes systems of long-term experiments enabling the manipulation of climatic conditions to assess the impacts of GCC on all or part of ecosystems (plants, soil, microorganisms). It is a set of "state-of-the-art" growth chambers (phytotrons) in Brno, field automatic system of cultivation chambers (open top chambers) in Domanínek near Bystřice nad Pernštejnem, system of automatic roofs for simulation of drought and elevated temperatures in grassland ecosystem at the Bílý Kříž in the Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts., cultivation lamellar domes at the Bílý Kříž used mainly for experiments using young forest stands and a system of automatic bioreactors for cultivation of photoautotrophic algae in Drásov. These devices are part of the ESFRI infrastructure of AnaEE. In the internal evaluation of AnaEE in 2019, 3 infrastructures (phytotrons, open top chambers and lamellar cultivation spheres) were rated with the highest quality and the remaining were placed in the second highest category requiring minimal upgrade. Most of these devices allow the evaluation of the interactive effects of several climatic factors at the same time (especially the effect of increased CO2 concentration, drought stress, UV radiation, temperature, spectral composition of radiation, mineral nutrition). Manipulation experiments can therefore simulate the expected climate change as realistically as possible and thus allow the direct evaluation of GCC impacts on ecosystems or their parts, or serve for the validation of models, which are subsequently used for impact predictions. In most cases, this infrastructure also serves to dynamically measure ecosystem processes and greenhouse gas emissions and thus plays an important role in the development and implementation of adaptation and mitigation measures. In cooperation with research institutes, universities and industry, the simulation of these conditions is used, e.g. for selection of tolerant genotypes of crops suitable for expected climatic conditions (especially resistance to drought and high temperatures) and development of phenotyping methods to automate selection of tolerant genotypes, understanding the processes of plant acclimation and adaptation and their use in the design of adaptation measures, estimation of GCC impacts on food production and quality, and validation of growth models based on climate change scenarios and development of remote sensing methods for early detection of stress caused by extreme synoptic situations or climate change.

Growth chambers (phytotrons) for laboratory manipulation experiments on plants and root phenotyping system  (Brno).

Open top chambers for multifactorial (CO2, temperature, drought, nutrients, light) manipulation experiments on crops (Domanínek experimental station).

System of automatic roofs for simulation of drought and elevated temperatures in grassland ecosystem at the Bílý Kříž in the Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts.

Domes for the cultivation of juvenile forest stand at elevated CO2 concentration under mountainous conditions (Bílý Kříž, Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts.).

Experimental photobioreactors for the cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms (Drásov).