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Segment 4: Observatory facilities

The network of ecosystem stations (ESs) and the atmospheric station (AS) is unique in the range of the CZ and it is complemented by the network of water flux stations for the investigation of landscape water balance and evapotranspiration. The AS is the only one, which is able to fill out the obligations of membership of the CZ in international programs and networks such as ICOS, InGOS, ACTRIS (in collaboration with Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals AS CR), GMOS (in collaboration with Czech Hydrometeorological Institute). Further, the data from the AS are sent also to GAW and EMEP. The ESs are equipped with the state-of-art instruments for monitoring of GHGs (CO2, CH4, N2O, O3) and water fluxes according the latest standards of ICOS. This facilities are represented by measurement towers in various ecosystems equipped with eddy covariance systems and meteorological sensors (temperature, humidity, wind speed, radiation) in the vertical canopy profile. The measurements are supplemented by continuous monitoring of spectralreflectance of vegetation (high resolution spectroradiometer phenological monitoring (phenological cameras), respiration measurements (soil and stem chambers), sap flow measurements (heat pulse sensors) etc. The ESs are within an open-access used for analysing and modeling of biogeochemical cycles (especially C cycle) in terms of management practices, effects of water regime, nutrition etc. The data from the ESs are also used for calculation of ecosystem services and for the estimation of C sequestration.

ESs forming the infrastructure CzeCOS represent following types of ecosystems in the Czech Republic:

1. mountain Norway spruce forest Bílý Kříž (Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts., 875 m a.s.l.)

2. mountain grassland Bílý Kříž (Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts., 860 m a.s.l.)

3. beech forest Štítná nad Vláří (Bílé Karpaty Mts., 540 m a.s.l.)

4. agrosystem Křešín u Pacova (Highland, 545 m a.s.l.)

5. middle elevated Norway spruce forest (Rájec-Jestřebí, 625 m a.s.l.)

6. alluvial forest (Lanžhot, 150 m a.s.l.)

7. wetland Mokré louky (Třeboň, 425 m a.s.l.)

8. poplar plantation (Domanínek, 575 m a.s.l.)

Description of measurements at atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova

 

Parameter

Instrument

Measurement mode

Time step

Height of instrument position

Start of measurement

CO2, CH4

Picarro G2301

continuous

1 hour

10 m, 50 m, 125 m, 250 m

September 2014

CO, N2O

LGR N2O/CO-23d analyzer

continuous

1 hour

10 m, 50 m, 125 m, 250 m

September 2014

13C and 18O in CO2, H2, N2O, SF6, O2/N2

Flask sampling

periodical

1 week

250 m

2015

CO2, CH4, CO, N2O

Flask sampling

periodical

1 week

250 m

2015

14C in CO2

Sorption flask with NaOH

periodical

1 week

250 m

2015

O3

Thermo 49i

continuous

1 min

50 m, 125m, 230 m

September 2013

Hg

TEKRAN 2537B

continuous

5 min

At ground, 240 m

December 2012

EC/OC

Sunset – model 4G Semi Continuous Field Analyzer

continuous

4 hours

At ground

March 2013

Aerosol light absorption

Aethalometer Magee Scientific AE31

continuous

5 min

At ground

September 2012

Aerosol light scattering

Nephelometer TSI 3563

continuous

5 min

At ground

September 2012

Wind speed and direction

2D heated anemometer WindObserver 65

continuous

1 min

10 m, 50 m, 125 m, 240 m, 250 m

May/August 2014

Air pressure

Barometer R. M. Young 61302

continuous

1 min

10 m, 50 m, 125 m, 240 m, 250 m

May 2014

Air temperature and relative humidity

Vaisala HMP155

continuous

1 min

10 m, 50 m, 125 m, 240 m, 250 m

May 2014

Planetary boundary layer height

Vaisala CL51

continuous

16s

At ground

December 2014